PLEY 2021 – Accepted Papers

Do They Perform Well? An Eye-tracking-based Empirical Study of an Educational Game

Wenyi Lu, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri, United States
Hao He, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri, United States
Alex Urban, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri, United States
Joe Griffin, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri, United States

3D video games show potential as educational tools that improve learner engagement. Integrating 3D games into school curricula, however, faces various challenges. One challenge is providing visualizations on learning dashboards for instructors. Such dashboards provide needed information so that instructors may conduct timely and appropriate interventions when students need it. Another challenge is identifying contributive learning predictors for a computational model, which can be the core algorithm used to make games more intelligent for tutoring and assessment purposes. Previous studies have found that students’ visual-attention is a vital aspect of engagement during gameplay. However, few studies have examined whether attention visualization patterns can distinguish students from different performance groups. Complicating this research is the relatively nascent investigation into gaze metrics for learning-prediction models. In this exploratory study, we used eye-tracking data from an educational game, Mission HydroSci, to examine visual-attention pattern differences between low and high performers and how their self-reported demographics affect such patterns. Results showed different visual-attention patterns between low and high performers. Additionally, self-reported science, gaming, and navigational expertise levels were significantly correlated to several gaze metric features.

<link to paper coming soon>


Analyzing Scanpaths From A Field Dependence-Independence Perspective When Playing A Visual Search Game

George E. Raptis, Human Opsis, Patras, Western Greece, Greece
Christina Katsini, Human Opsis, Patras, Western Greece, Greece

People tend to develop different cognitive styles, which influence how we process information when interacting with computer systems. Field Dependence-Independence is one of the most well-known cognitive styles that influences how we process information in visual search tasks. Considering that such tasks are common in video games, this paper investigates whether information processing differences, derived from Field Dependence-Independence cognitive style, reflect on different eye trajectories when playing a visual search game. We performed a small-scale eye-tracking study to investigate it. The results of the scanpath analysis indicated that such differences exist. The study results provide a first step towards understanding how people who share different cognitive styles differ in the scanpaths they develop when playing a visual search game.

<link to paper coming soon>

The full ETRA 2021 proceedings can be found here: <tbd>

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